Thursday, March 19, 2020

Working With Native Americans in a Social Work Setting essays

Working With Native Americans in a Social Work Setting essays Certain aspects of Native American cultures may affect the process and outcome of Native Americans who seek out assistance from social workers. The values and norms inherent in many Native American cultures often present unique circumstances when individuals from those cultures deal with the dominant culture. There are at least 550 different Native American tribes in the United States, and within those tribes are unique and distinct cultural variables to assess. Because all of those tribes combined are broadly defined as Native Americans, and for the purposes and scope of this paper, the information discussed is in reference to those hundreds of tribes as one set of cultures commonly referred to by the dominant culture as American Indians or Native Americans. As with most cultures, the Native American culture has its own set of values (different tribes have their own specific and independent set of standards which can vary greatly in certain aspects ). American middle -class and American Indian cultural values differ in major areas . How individuals in these two groups view mans relationship with nature, relations with people and time are actually opposite. According to Giordano, McGoldrick and Pearce (1982), Middle -class Americans attach value in having control over the environment/nature while Native Americans value being in harmony with nature. Native Americans are more concerned with the group rather than the individual, whereas middle-class Americans value the individual. In regards to time orientation, Native Americans view daily life as situated in the present, past and then future; middle-class Americans view it future, present , past. There are about 2.3 million Native Americans in the United States, accounting for just 0.9 percent of all Americans (Russell, 1996). The National Census reported in 1990 that nearly half of natives living on reservations were living below the standards con...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Edad en peticiones de green card y otras solicitudes

Edad en peticiones de green card y otras solicitudes En Estados Unidos la edad juega un papel fundamental en peticiones de la tarjeta de residencia, tambià ©n conocida como green card, y otros beneficios migratorios como el asilo, programas humanitarios, loterà ­a de visas, etc. La edad determina quià ©n puede pedir ciertos beneficios migratorios para familiares, y tambià ©n quià ©n puede recibirlos, por derecho propio o porque puede ser incluido en la peticià ³n de su padre o madre. Cabe destacar que desde el punto de vista de las leyes migratoria y en contra de lo que a menudo se piensa, un menor –a quien se denomina child– no es la persona que no ha cumplido  la mayorà ­a de edad. Por el contrario, un nià ±o para Inmigracià ³n puede ser una persona menor de 16 aà ±os, de 18 o de 21, dependiendo del tipo de peticià ³n. En todos los casos, el menor debe permanecer soltero para mantener la consideracià ³n de menor. Casos en los que la edad afecta a la peticià ³n de la green card por familia La edad juega un papel en las peticiones de la green card, pero solo en determinados supuestos, destacando: Peticià ³n de ciudadano estadounidense a hijo/a Los ciudadanos pueden pedir la tarjeta de residencia para sus hijos. Se distinguen tres situaciones, segà ºn la edad y estado civil de los mismos. Hijos soltero menor de 21 aà ±osHijos soltero mayor de 21 aà ±osHijo casado de cualquier edad Solo los hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os son considerados como familiares inmediatos del ciudadano. Esa categorà ­a especial posibilita que ese menor pueda adquirir la green card por peticià ³n del padre o madre en aproximadamente 12 -18 meses. Si desde la peticià ³n de la green card y su aprobacià ³n el hijo cumple los 21 aà ±os de edad todavà ­a puede optar a obtener los papeles en esa categorà ­a porque se considera que su edad se ha congelado en el momento de presentacià ³n de la solicitud. Por el contrario, las otras dos categorà ­as reciben respectivamente el nombre de F1 y F3 y son peticiones que tardan aà ±os en resolverse. El boletà ­n de visas es documento a consultar para orientarse sobre el tiempo de demora. Por otro lado, en las peticiones de un hijo en la categorà ­a F1 o F3 se puede incluir a los hijos de tales hijos, siempre y cuando permanezcan solteros y tengan menos de 21 aà ±os en el momento de aprobarse su visa de inmigrante. Si en el momento de la tramitacià ³n final esos hijos han cumplido ya los 21 aà ±os de edad no podrn obtener la green card de esta manera. Se les considera lo que en inglà ©s se conoce como age out. Es decir, la edad los ha dejado fuera. No importa que la peticià ³n se hubiera presentado cuando eran unos nià ±os pequeà ±os. Peticià ³n de ciudadano para sus hijastros Aplican las mismas condiciones que para las peticiones de hijos biolà ³gicos, tal y como se han explicado en el apartado anterior, pero con un requisito ms: el matrimonio entre el ciudadano y padre o madre del muchacho/a para el que se desea pedir los papeles tiene que haberse celebrado antes de que dicho muchacho hubiera cumplido los 18 aà ±os de edad. Visa de inmigrante K-2 para hijos de prometido/a de ciudadano estadounidense Los ciudadanos pueden solicitar una visa K-2 para los hijos de sus novios siempre y cuando dichos hijos està ©n solteros y tengan menos de 21 aà ±os cumplidos. Peticià ³n de residente permanente para hijo/a Los residentes permanente pueden solicitar a sus hijos solteros. Los menores de 21 aà ±os caen en la categorà ­a que se conoce F2A y los mayores de dicha edad son considerados como F2B. La primera peticià ³n tarda menos aà ±os que la segunda. Los residentes permanentes no pueden pedir a hijos casados, sin que importe la edad. Excepciones a la regla general de edad en peticiones de green card La Ley de Proteccià ³n del Estatus del Menor (CSPA, ver el texto completo en inglà ©s) entrà ³ en vigor en 2002 y permite que ciertas personas para las que ya se ha pedido una green card antes de cumplir los 21 aà ±os y que cumplen dicha edad antes de finalizarse la tramitacià ³n sigan siendo consideradas como nià ±os (child) hasta la finalizacià ³n de la misma. Estos son los tres casos: Si un ciudadano americano pide a un hijo/a soltero menor de 21 aà ±os En este caso, la edad del hijo se congela en la fecha en la que se ha presentado ante el USCIS la forma I-130. Por ejemplo, si el hijo tiene 20 aà ±os y nueve meses y su visa est disponible cuando ya tiene 22, se le sigue considerando a estos efectos como menor de 21 aà ±os. Si un residente permanente legal pide a un hijo/a En este caso la edad del muchacho se congela si el padre o la madre que es residente se convierte en ciudadano por naturalizacià ³n antes de que el hijo alcance los 21. En estos casos se considera como edad del chico la que tenà ­a en la fecha de la jura del progenitor como ciudadano americano. Generalmente, eso beneficia al pedido que podrà ­a obtener antes la green card. Sin embargo, eso no siempre ocurre asà ­, y se tiene que verificar si es ms rpido para el hijo seguir siendo un F2B o pasar a la categorà ­a de F1, para hijos solteros de ciudadanos. Si es ms conveniente lo primero,  comunicrselo por carta al USCIS,  diciendo que se opta por seguir en la categorà ­a de hijo de residente. Por à ºltimo recordar que tanto en el caso de peticià ³n de residente convertido en ciudadano o de ciudadano que pidià ³ a su hijo, se tiene un aà ±o para proseguir los trmites para adquirir la green card mediante la presentacià ³n del formulario que le corresponda: I-824, Accià ³n sobre una aplicacià ³n o peticià ³n aprobada.I-485, Ajuste de estatus, si est ya viviendo en Estados Unidos.DS-230, Aplicacià ³n por una visa de inmigrante, que debe tramitarse en la oficina consular que corresponda. En otras palabras, se debe proceder con los trmites sin demora porque hay que recordar que no es suficiente con tener aprobado el I-130. Refugiados y casos de asilo Los refugiados y asilados pueden pedir una green card para sus hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os. Se entiende que cumplen con este requisito si esa era su situacià ³n en el momento en el que uno de los progenitores presentà ³ el formulario I-589, Aplicacià ³n para asilo o el I-590, Registro como refugiado. La edad en peticiones de green card por razones diferentes a familia La edad tambià ©n afecta a casos de peticiones de green card por razones diferentes a familia, como por ejemplo, la loterà ­a, asilo,  patrocinio de empresa, inversià ³n, etc.  En estos casos, el beneficiario podr incluir en su misma solicitud a su cà ³nyuge y a sus hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os. Por ejemplo, Anà ­bal Là ³pez est casado y tiene dos hijos, uno de 19 aà ±os y el otro de 21. Y gana la loterà ­a de visas de la diversidad. Anà ­bal podr emigrar a Estados Unidos junto con su esposa y su hijo de 19 aà ±os, cada uno con su propia green card. Sin embargo, el hijo de 21 aà ±os no obtiene los papeles. La solucià ³n en estos casos es que Anà ­bal o su esposa, una vez en Estados Unidos, puedan iniciar los trmites como residentes para pedir a un hijo soltero mayor de 21 aà ±os.   Edad y el Estatus de Inmigrantes Especiales Juveniles Este programa, conocido como SIJS, por sus siglas en inglà ©s, permite obtener la tarjeta de residencia a los muchachos indocumentados presentes en EE.UU. y que han sido abusados, abandonados o tratados con negligencia por sus padres y cuyo mejor interà ©s sea permanecer en los Estados Unidos. La edad para beneficiarse de este programa es 18 o 21 aà ±os, dependiendo del estado en el que el muchacho reside. Edad y DACA En el programa especial para jà ³venes indocumentados conocido como DACA, los beneficiados deben cumplir, entre otros requisitos, el de haber llegado a EE.UU. antes de haber cumplido los 16 aà ±os de edad. Tampoco podà ­an tener ms de 30 en el momento en que aplicaron. La edad del ciudadano para pedir papeles Los ciudadanos estadounidenses pueden solicitar la green card para sus padres y hermanos, pero para presentar la solicitud deben haber cumplido los 21 aà ±os de edad.   Si estn casados sà ­ pueden pedir a su cà ³nyuge, porque el matrimonio los ha convertido en adultos a los ojos de Inmigracià ³n. Ciudadanà ­a estadounidense y edad La edad tambià ©n puede afectar a la ciudadanà ­a en diversas situaciones. Asà ­, para adquirirla por derecho de sangre es necesario cumplir todos los requisitos antes de cumplir los 18 aà ±os. Por otra parte, los residentes permanentes legales menores de 18 aà ±os pueden adquirir automticamente la ciudadanà ­a estadounidense cuando uno de sus padres se convierte en ciudadano por naturalizacià ³n. Tambià ©n se puede adquirir por adopcià ³n y, en casos excepcionales, por naturalizacià ³n por derecho derivado de un abuelo. Cà ³mo afecta la edad en las visas no inmigrantes Muchas de las visas no inmigrantes, como por ejemplo la de estudiante, intercambio o temporales de trabajo  permiten a su titular traer a su familia a Estados Unidos por el tiempo que dure su estancia.   En estos casos las familias gozan de lo que se conoce como visas derivadas, ya que dependen de la del principal. Y en estos casos por familia hay que entender el cà ³nyuge y los hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os. Por ejemplo, Carmen Vega es enviada por su empresa a Estados Unidos con una visa L-1 de transfer y le acompaà ±an su esposo y sus hijos menores de 21 aà ±os. Todos estos con una L-2. Pero durante la estancia el hijo mayor cumple los 21. Como ya no puede disfrutar de una visa derivada tiene que salir de Estados Unidos o quedarse pero con una visa de la que es su propio titular. Por ejemplo, una F-1 porque est estudiando en la universidad. Test de respuestas mà ºltiples sobre la green card Finalmente, para todos los lectores interesados en la tarjeta de residencia, este test brinda una oportunidad sencilla de informarse sobre aspectos fundamentales para sacar la green card y conservarla sin problemas. Puntos Clave: edad en peticiones y beneficios migratorios Peticiones de ciudadano para hijo: menor de 21 es familiar inmediato, mayor de 21 y soltero es F1 y casado de cualquier edad F3.Peticiones de ciudadano a hijastro: matrimonio de ciudadano y padre/madre de hijastro debe haberse celebrado antes de que el hijo/a hubiera cumplido los 18 aà ±os de edad.Peticiones de visa K-2 para hijos de novio/a de ciudadano: solteros menores de 21 aà ±os.Peticiones de residente para hijos solteros: menos de 21 aà ±os es un F2A, 21 o ms e u n F2B.Transmisià ³n de ciudadanà ­a americana por derecho de sangre: todos los requisitos deben cumplirse antes de haber cumplido los 18 aà ±os de edad.Visas de inmigrante o no inmigrante derivadas: se puede incluir a los hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os.Asilo: pueden adquirir la green card los hijos solteros menores de 21 aà ±os de la persona que obtiene el asilo.Estatus Especial de Inmigrante Juvenil: pueden adquirir los papeles si son menores de 18 o de 21, depende del estado de residencia.Peticià ³n de ciudadano de green card para padres o hermanos: tiene que haber cumplido 21 aà ±os de edad. Este artà ­culo tiene un fin meramente informativo. No es ayuda legal.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

History And Crime Module In The Criminal Justice Assignment

History And Crime Module In The Criminal Justice - Assignment Example The social scientific knowledge and theory had developed not only within the minds of individuals but also in particular institutional domains, which have gained shapes from their surroundings. The development of the surroundings has been developed based on certain factors like the organizational pattern of the institute, division, and subdivision of the institute, emergence of disputes, funding of research studies and also the publication and usage of the findings. These values play a big role in shaping up the academic background of the institutes and also these values should be taken into consideration by the students while selecting their field of studies. In studying criminology the understanding of these institutional domains are especially important for the students, which would, in turn, help them in shaping up their knowledge base. This is useful not only in the academic world but also in the application world as well. The book Crime and Society in England: 1750 – 190 0 by Clive Emsley has clearly synthesized the recent works on crime and English society from the mid-18th century to close to the 19th century. The book cites the references of crimes in the Wales where the legal system was indistinguishable from the rest of England. The book also has the references of criminal justice systems of Scotland, which had a different legal system and Ireland that had rural and nationalist rebels together with the para-military police. There will be four key questions to be discussed in this essay.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Tools Used for Examining Frauds Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Tools Used for Examining Frauds - Term Paper Example They grab the attention of the clients by promising them quick money (Coderre, 2009). Detection of financial frauds required experienced forensic accountants. They are basically accountants, auditors, and investigators of financial and legal documents who are hired by the company to look into possible financial frauds taking place. There are different varieties of financial frauds. The range can spread from a simple theft to more complicated frauds and identity thefts. Some of the common types of financial frauds are; check fraud, banking/identity fraud directs theft, invoices and payments fraud. Four basic frauds that occur in a business are; Embezzlement, internal theft, payoffs and kickbacks and skimming (Imoniana, Antunes & Formigoni, 2013). Embezzlement which is also known as larceny occurs when the personnel who are appointed to control the funds, use them illegally for their personal gain (Petrucelli, 2013). Internal theft takes place when company assets such as company products or supplies are stolen by the employees. This causes inventories to shrink down. Pay-offs and kickbacks are kinds of bribery which are often reported by the companies. These occur when employees take money from the receipt and that transaction is not recorded. Other important frauds are Money laundering, Mortgage fraud, Racketeering/ RICO, Securities fraud, payroll-fraud, manipulation of sales figures, tax evasion, use of fictitious invoicing, stealing money from company accounts, duplicate billing, accounts receivable fraud, financial statement fraud, etc. Money Laundering is the process of movement of illicit money and other profits through legitimate channels with the purpose of disguising the illegal source of the money to prevent from tax officials (Wells, 2010).  

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Teenage Suicide Essay -- Teenage Suicide Essays

Teenage suicide has become a critical, national problem the extent of which is mind boggling. From 1980 to 1992 the rate of suicides involving persons from the ages of 10-14 years old has increased by 120 percent, and has increased 28.3 percent when involving persons from the ages of 15-19 years old (Suicide 451). More recently in a poll of 3,210 high-school honor students, a stunning one-quarter have seriously considered suicide (Eaton 15). Suicides have been proven to be one of the leading causes of death among teens, falling second only to accidents (Roberts 45). This data, however, may be inaccurate, being that deaths labeled accidental may have actually been teen suicides. Also, many families may not want to report suicides or suicide attempts for the fear of embarrassment. Nevertheless, there is extensive proof that suicide attempts and/or successes are on the rise among teenagers, and numerous groups have devoted themselves to establishing a cause to this epidemic. The one si milarity that all of these different groups seem to agree on is that there is not one single theory that explains the growing phenomenon of teenage suicide. However, a number of factors seem to be common among â€Å"at-risk teens,† factors that, if given the right set of circumstances, could put them in jeopardy.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of and seemingly the most common of these factors is depression. According to the National Association for Mental Health, nearly 20 percent of those who receive care for depression in hospitals and clinics are under the age of eighteen (Leder 31). Everyone has different reasons for being depressed and the extent of that depression will also vary from person to person. Some common causes of depression that have been found to lead to suicide attempts are not feeling loved and/or understood, the feeling of rejection, trouble with friends and family, or the feeling of being â€Å"no good.† A loss, (as in the death of a loved one, divorce, or the breakup up with a boyfriend/girlfriend) Has also been found to link depression and suicide (Leder 34).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Psychologists and doctors have also realized that having numerous psychological problems, known as â€Å"conduct disorders,† causes teens to have impulsive behavior. This impulsive behavior can cause them to act violent... ... a sense of identity is often pretty shacked and fragile during adolescence, feelings of not being worth much in one’s parents eyes won’t help a young person’s self-esteem. In extreme cases the adolescent may look upon himself, as being despicable and worthless, and learn to hate himself, when he is unable able to reach their goals (Hafen 95). The Youth Suicide National Center feels that â€Å"few of them [adolescents] have found ways of dealing with the lack of self esteem and when these feelings overwhelm them, they believe there is something very wrong with them.† (qtd. in Hafen 23).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After reading numerous books and articles, the plain, but simple truth is that no one knows exactly why teenagers kill themselves. Psychiatrists have, however, reached the conclusion that in a society where adolescents have been exposed to many adult pressures and stresses, they may not be able to cope. Some of the most common causes of stress revolve around family situations, social problems, depression, developmental factors, and other factors associated with adolescents. It is this unbearable stress that leads them to the act of suicide.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Landscape Procurement Plan

Landscape Project Procurement Plan 1. Overview: Following a major renovation and addition to the house, a redesign of the front yard is required. This redesign will encompass the front yard that is approximately 65 ft wide by 70 ft deep. The area is bounded on the south side by the house and a wooden fence, on the west side by a continuation of the wooden fence for approximately 40 feet. The north side is to the property line, and the east side is bound by the driveway. There is a sidewalk that comes away from the house to about 25 feet and turns to the driveway. The area enclosed by the driveway and sidewalk is approximately 350 ft2.The major components of this redesign consist of grading and removing excess soil remaining from remodel, install electric wiring for exterior lighting, install hardscape, landscape design and installation of the plants and trees. What is not included in the scope of this project is the seeding of the lawn area, lawn maintenance, removal of existing plan ts and painting/staining of existing fence. 2. Make or Buy Analysis: While my husband and I have the ability to perform the majority of the tasks associated with the landscape redesign, the constraints of time and manpower limit the amount of work that we will perform.Below is the Make or Buy Analysis. Task| Make/Buy| Reason| Excavate/Grade yard| Buy| Limited experience on a Bobcat. More cost effective to hire the work out. Landscape companies routinely perform this type of work| Install electric wiring| Make| Husband is an electrician and is qualified to perform the work| Landscape design| Buy| Not skilled in landscape design| Installation of plants| Make & buy| This task will be a combination. The larger trees and plants will be installed by the nursery. We will install the smaller plants. Install hardscape| Make| These items will be purchased and installed following the plants as time and budget allow. | 3. Procurement needs: a. Excavation/grading b. Electrical materials c. Lands cape design d. Installation of plants e. Installation of hardscape 4. Statement of work: Task| Statement of Work| Excavation /grading| Soil remains from the excavation of the foundation and new basement sections of the addition. The majority of the soil will be removed to another location on the property to fill in low spots.This soil will be spread in a manner that will result in a reasonably level location relative to the surrounding area. Following removal of the excess soil, the front yard will be re-contoured according to the specifications outlined in the landscape design. | Electrical| The electric will consist of exterior grade wiring/conduit running from the main electric panel located in the northeast corner of the basement. The exterior lighting will be on its own circuit with dedicated breakers. The conduit will be placed below grade and extend beyond the sidewalk, to the edge of the driveway.An exterior rated junction box will be installed with additional connections to allow expansion of the exterior lighting as needed in the future. An exterior light pole and fixture will be installed that includes, at a minimum, one exterior outlet. Additional conduit will be placed below grade to the northwest corner of the house. An LB will be installed to bring the electric wiring aboveground to provide power to two exterior outlets for general use. | Landscape design| Evaluation of soil type and condition, elevation and directionality of front yard to be completed.Based on this evaluation, any modification or supplementation of the soil will be performed as needed. A selection of trees, shrubs, and perennial plants will be chosen, collectively identified as â€Å"plants† throughout the remainder of the plan. The design of the landscape shall include the overview diagram, the planting schematic and all care instructions for selected plants. A minimum of three alternate plants will be provided in addition to the plant identified in the design. The majo rity of the plants should be considered native to the Midwest. Trees and tall shrubs must be located away from overhead power and phone lines.The design must include what is collectively known as 3 season plants, which have blooms, seed heads, etc. visible during spring, summer and fall. All ornamental grasses must be less than 4 foot tall. A minimum of 2 flowering trees must be included in the design. One large tree, defined as 10 – 12 foot tall, with trunk diameter of at least 6 inches, must be included as well. The design will include evergreen as well as deciduous plants and shrubs. The overall design should be identified as low maintenance, consisting of sufficient plantings to minimize weeds, identification of various covers, such as hardwood mulch and decorative rock/gravel. Installation of plants| The plants will be installed according to the agreed upon design and plant selection. If, for any reason, a plant is not available, a substitute will be chosen and installed in its place. Plants will be installed with appropriate care to minimize any shock or trauma sustained by the plants. Following installation, return visits to evaluate the health of the plants will occur at agreed upon intervals as appropriate. Should any plant not be thriving, or performing as expected, the plant may be replaced with a substitute identified in the design plan. Installation of hardscape| Hardscape is generally defined as permanent fixtures, such as statuary, fountains, etc. in a garden or landscape setting. All locations will be prepared according to the design and the hardscape features identified in the landscape design will be purchased OTS or built as time and budget allow. | 5. Procurement Documentation: The documentation required to obtain services for each activity is listed below. Task| Documentation Type| Appendix| Excavation/grading| Request for Quote| A| Electrical materials| Request for Quote| B| Landscape design| Request for Proposal| C|Installation of plants| Request for Proposal| D| Installation of hardscape| Request for Quote| E| 6. Contract Types: The type of contract that will be offered with each task. Task| Contract Type| Excavation/grading| Firm Fixed Price| Electrical materials| Purchase Order| Landscape design| Firm Fixed Price| Installation of plants| Time and Material| Installation of hardscape| Purchase Order| 7. Evaluation criteria and selection process f. Available alternatives per activity g. Evaluation criteria h. Recommendation Pre-Qualified Sellers per Activity Task| Supplier| Location| Phone number|Excavation/grading| Waldbart & Sons LandscapingEarthtones LandscapingThe Garden Kingdom| Bunker Hill, IlLebanon, IlGlen Carbon, Il| | Electrical materials| Frost ElectricHome DepotLowes| Collinsville, IlEdwardsville, ILEdwardsville, IL| | Landscape design| Waldbart & Sons LandscapingEarthtones LandscapingThe Garden Kingdom| Bunker Hill, IlLebanon, IlGlen Carbon, Il| | Installation of plants| Waldbart & Sons Landscap ingEarthtones LandscapingThe Garden Kingdom| Bunker Hill, IlLebanon, IlGlen Carbon, Il| | Installation of hardscape| Waldbart & Sons LandscapingEarthtones LandscapingThe Garden Kingdom| Bunker Hill, IlLebanon, IlGlen Carbon, Il| | Evaluation Criteria & Selection Process Task| Evaluation Criteria| Weight|Excavation/grading| CostQualityReferences| 50%25%25%| Electrical materials| CostService| 50%50%| Landscape design| CostQualityReferences| 40%30%30%| Installation of plants| CostQualityReferences| 40%30%30%| Installation of hardscape| CostQualityReferences| 50%30%20%| Criteria Analysis Excavation/Grading| | | Waldbart & Sons| Earthtones| Garden Kingdom| Criteria| Weight (%)| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Cost| 50| 75| 37. 5| 88| 44| 92| 46| Quality| 25| 92| 23| 97| 24. 25| 89| 22. 25| References| 25| 97| 24. 25| 95| 23. 75| 83| 20. 75| Total| 100| | 84. 75| | 92| | 89| Electrical Materials| | | Frost Electric| Home Depot| Lowes|Criteria| Weight ( %)| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Cost| 50| 85| 42. 5| 93| 46. 5| 93| 46. 5| Service| 50| 98| 49| 80| 40| 98| 49| Total| 100| | 91. 5| | 86. 5| | 95. 5| Landscape Design| | | Waldbart & Sons| Earthtones| Garden Kingdom| Criteria| Weight (%)| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Cost| 40| 86| 34| 91| 36. 4| 88| 35. 2| Quality| 30| 92| 27. 6| 89| 26. 7| 97| 29. 1| References| 30| 96| 28. 8| 89| 26. 7| 98| 29. 4| Total| 100| | 90. 4| | 89. 8| | 93. 7| Installation of Plants| | | Waldbart & Sons| Earthtones| Garden Kingdom| Criteria| Weight (%)| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score| Cost| 40| 90| 36| 96| 38. 4| 85| 34|Quality| 30| 93| 27. 9| 90| 27| 92| 27. 6| References| 30| 95| 28. 5| 88| 26. 4| 93| 27. 9| Total| 100| | 92. 4| | 91. 8| | 89. 5| Installation of Hardscape| | | Waldbart & Sons| Earthtones| Garden Kingdom| Criteria| Weight (%)| Score| Weighted Score| Score| Weighted Score | Score| Weighted Score| Cost| 50| 75| 37. 5| 80| 40| 85| 42. 5| Quality| 30| 75| 22. 5| 85| 25. 5| 90| 27| References| 20| 88| 17. 6| 70| 14| 92| 18. 4| Total| 100| | 77. 6| | 79. 5| | 87. 9| Final Selection Each of the identified vendors have the ability to perform all required tasks outlined in the statement of work and generally perform these tasks as a single contracted job.The final selection of vendor is based on the highest average weighted score. My husband will perform the electrical work, purchasing materials from the selected vendor below. Task| Company| Excavation/grading| The Garden Kingdom| Electrical materials| Lowe’s| Landscape design| The Garden Kingdom| Installation of plants| The Garden Kingdom| Installation of hardscape| The Garden Kingdom| 8. Schedule Dates: At least 10 days lead time will be given to the initiation of the project to ensure electrical work will be completed. The lead times will also be dependent on weather conditions. If rain postpones w ork, the schedule will be adjusted accordingly. Task| Lead time| Start Date| End Date|Landscape design| 2 weeks| April 2, 2012| April 13, 2012| Electrical materials| 2 weeks| April 16, 2012| April 20, 2012| Excavation/grading| 2 weeks| April 23, 2012| May 4, 2012| Installation of plants| 2 week| May 14, 2012| May 25, 2012| Installation of hardscape| 3 weeks| May 7, 2012| May 14, 2012| 9. Contract Administration: We will act as general contractors for this project. We will be responsible for all phases of the project. We will also be responsible for having underground utility location performed in advance of any excavation. Since there will be one vendor performing the work, the contract administration is as follows: Activity| Constrains/Assumptions| Payment Schedule|Excavation/grading| * Underground utilities have been located and appropriately marked before work starts * There will be no delays due to weather * Within budget| Deposit plus invoice upon completion| Electrical materia ls| * There will be no delays due to weather * Availability of materials * Within budget| Invoice at purchase, payable 30 days net| Landscape design| * There will be no delays due to weather * Availability of selected plants * Within budget| Deposit plus invoice upon completion| Installation of plants| * There will be no delays due to weather * Within budget| Deposit plus invoice upon completion| Installation of hardscape| * There will be no delays due to weather * Within budget| Invoice upon completion| 10. Procurement Metrics: The success of each activity will be evaluated by the below criteria: Activity| Metric| Specific Metric|Excavation/grading| * Cost * Speed * Satisfaction| Actual vs planned costWork completed on scheduleIssues resolved satisfactorily | Electrical materials| * Cost * Speed| Actual vs planned costWork completed on schedule| Landscape design| * Cost * Aesthetic design * Satisfaction| Actual vs planned costDesign meets criteria in SOWI’m happy with the de sign| Installation of plants| * Cost * Speed * Quality| Actual vs planned costWork completed on scheduleMinimal plant death/replacement| Installation of hardscape| * Cost * Speed * Quality| Actual vs planned costWork completed on scheduleIssues resolved satisfactorily| Appendix A: Request for Quote: Excavation/Grading Request for Quote Landscape Installation May 2012Specifications: * Must be bonded and insured * The front yard area needs to be graded and leveled in preparation of landscaping * Grading will consist of leveling and smoothing according to landscape design plan * Features such as berms, dry creek beds will be created as defined in the landscape plan * Excess soil will be moved to another location on the property as fill and leveled * Underground utilities will be located and marked prior to work starting * Provide a minimum of 3 references Please respond no later than March 30, 2012 Contract will be awarded on April 13, 2012 Appendix B: Request for Quote: Electric Reque st for QuoteLandscape Installation May 2012 Specification: * Must be bonded and insured * The electric will consist of exterior grade wiring/conduit running from the main electric panel located in the northeast corner of the basement. * The exterior lighting will be on its own circuit with dedicated breakers. * The conduit will be placed below grade and extend beyond the sidewalk, to the edge of the driveway. * An exterior rated junction box will be installed with additional connections to allow expansion of the exterior lighting as needed in the future. * An exterior light pole and fixture will be installed that includes, at a minimum, one exterior GFCI outlet. Switches for exterior lighting will be installed in the front entryway * Additional conduit will be placed below grade to the northwest corner of the house. An LB will be installed to bring the electric wiring aboveground to provide power to two exterior GFCI outlets for general use. * Provide cost breakdown of materials to be used Please respond no later than March 30, 2012 Contract will be awarded on April 13, 2012 Appendix C: Request for Proposal: Landscape Design Plan Request for Proposal Landscape Design Plan May 2012 Specifications: * Must be bonded and insured * Evaluation of soil type and condition, elevation and directionality of front yard will be completed. * Based on this evaluation, any modification or supplementation of the soil will be performed as needed. A selection of trees, shrubs, and perennial plants will be chosen, collectively identified as â€Å"plants† throughout the remainder of the plan. * The design of the landscape shall include the overview diagram, the planting schematic and all care instructions for selected plants. * The design will also include any hardscape items such as fountains, trellis’, etc. * A minimum of three alternate plants will be provided in addition to the plant identified in the design. The majority of the plants should be considered native to the Midwest. * Trees and tall shrubs must be located away from overhead power and phone lines. * The design must include what is collectively known as 3 season plants, which have blooms, seed heads, etc. visible during spring, summer and fall. All ornamental grasses must be less than 4 foot tall. * A minimum of 2 flowering trees must be included in the design. * One large tree, defined as 10 – 12 foot tall, with trunk diameter of at least 6 inches, must be included as well. * The design will include evergreen as well as deciduous plants and shrubs. * The overall design should be identified as low maintenance, consisting of sufficient plantings to minimize weeds, identification of various covers, such as hardwood mulch and decorative rock/gravel. * The proposal shall have 2 prices; 1. ) Complete design and installation, and 2. ) just the overview diagram, the planting schematic and all care instructions for selected plantsPlease respond no later than March 30, 2012 Contrac t will be awarded on April 18, 2012 Appendix D: Request for Proposal: Landscape Installation Request for proposal Landscape Installation May 2012 Specification: * Must be bonded and insured * The plants will be installed according to the agreed upon design and plant selection. If, for any reason, a plant is not available, a substitute will be chosen and installed in its place. * Plants will be installed with appropriate care to minimize any shock or trauma sustained by the plants. * Following installation, return visits to evaluate the health of the plants will occur at agreed upon intervals as appropriate. Should any plant not be thriving, or performing as expected, the plant may be replaced with a substitute identified in the design plan. * Responsible for removal of all waste Please respond no later than March 30, 2012 Contract will be awarded on April 18, 2012 Appendix E: Request for Quote: Installation of Hardscape Request for Quote Hardscape Installation May 2012 Specification s: * Must be bonded and insured * All locations will be prepared according to the design and the hardscape features identified in the landscape design will be purchased OTS or built as time and budget allow. * Any permanent placements requiring electrical or plumbing connections should be identified and specified before completion of the electrical work found in the SOW.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

What Is the Most Abundant Salt in the Ocean

There are several salts in seawater, but the most abundant is ordinary table salt or sodium chloride (NaCl). Sodium chloride, like other salts, dissolves in water into its ions, so this is really a question about which ions are present in the greatest concentration. Sodium chloride  dissociates into Na and Cl- ions. The total amount of all types of salt in the sea averages about 35 parts per thousand (each liter of seawater contains about 35 grams of salt). Sodium and chloride ions are present at much higher levels than components of any other salt. Chemical Concentration (mol/kg) H2O 53.6 Cl- 0.546 Na+ 0.469 Mg2+ 0.0528 SO42- 0.0282 Ca2+ 0.0103 K+ 0.0102 C (inorganic) 0.00206 Br- 0.000844 B 0.000416 Sr2+ 0.000091 F- 0.000068 Molar Composition of Seawater Reference: DOE (1994). In A.G. Dickson C. Goyet. Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water. 2. ORNL/CDIAC-74.